We store movies in files, typically in an MPEG format. Let’s look at what’s inside one of those movie files, and how we can grab a frame from a movie as an image and put it into the MATLAB workspace.
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The orientation of a body in 3D can also be described by a unit-Quaternion, an unusual but very useful mathematical object. In the MATLAB example starting at 3:48 I use the Quaternion class. For Toolbox version 10 (2017) please use UnitQuaternion instead.
We learn how to describe the orientation of an object by a 2×2 rotation matrix which has some special properties. Try your hand at some online MATLAB problems. You’ll need to watch all the 2D “Spatial Maths” lessons to complete the problem set.
An image contains a huge amount of pixel data, and a video stream is a massive flow of pixel data. Typically a robot has only a few inputs, the position or velocity of its joints. How do we go from all that camera data to the small amount of data the robot really needs?
Let’s recap the basics of homogeneous coordinates to represent points on a plane.
What are the consequences of representing a three-dimensional scene using only two-dimensions? The appearance of parallel lines converging and circular objects being elliptical should be surprising but we take this for granted.
We will compare and contrast the terms image processing, computer vision and robotic vision — they have much in common but there are some subtle but important distinctions. When it comes to interpreting an image we typically try to find and describe regions, lines and interest points.
There is a lot of information in an image which we need to summarize somehow. An intensity histogram is one form of summary that provides useful information about how well the exposure of our camera is adjusted.
An alternative for smooth motion between poses is Cartesian interpolated motion which leads to straight line motion in 3D space.
Let’s look at some recent research results that vividly show how information from many 2D images taken from many different locations can be combined to form a detailed 3D model of the world.