#### Monadic Functions

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Let’s look at some simple monadic functions such as type conversion, brightness and contrast adjustment, inversion and posterisation and the effect they have on an image.

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Let’s look at some simple monadic functions such as type conversion, brightness and contrast adjustment, inversion and posterisation and the effect they have on an image.

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An important class of operations are monadic, which map an input image to an output image of the same size by applying the same function to every pixel.

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Let’s recall the key techniques we’ve covered including monadic and dyadic image processing operations and efficient ways to write these in MATLAB using vectorization.

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Imagine a scene with bright objects against a dark background. Thresholding is a very common monadic operation which transforms the image into one where the pixels have two possible values: true or false which correspond to foreground or background. It can be performed with a single vectorized MATLAB operation.

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We can bring together what we’ve learnt about histograms and monadic operations to implement a technique called histogram normalization which is great at highlighting fine detail in an image.

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Almost all cameras apply gamma encoding to the images they output. Let’s talk about what gamma encoding is, why it happens and how it is decoded.