#### Limits of Electric Motor Performance

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Actuators have finite capability, that is they have a maximum torque, velocity and power rating.

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Actuators have finite capability, that is they have a maximum torque, velocity and power rating.

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So far we have taken a linear combination of pixels in the box around the input pixel, but non-linear operations like sorting and ranking the pixel values also prove to be very useful. We look at the median filter which is much better at removing salt and pepper noise from image than simple smoothing.

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Electric motors are typically quite weak, they produce a low torque, so it’s very common to add a reduction gearbox.

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We resume our analysis of the 6-link robot Jacobian and focus on the rotational velocity part.

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A more efficient trajectory has a trapezoidal velocity profile.

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If your knowledge of dynamics is a bit rusty then let’s quickly revise the basics of second-order systems and the Laplace operator. Not rusty? Then go straight to the next section.

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For real robots such as those with 6 joints that move in 3D space the inverse kinematics is quite complex, but for many of these robots the solutions have been helpfully derived by others and published. Let’s explore the inverse kinematics of the classical Puma 560 robot.

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We summarise the important points from this lecture.

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We combine what we’ve learnt about smoothly varying position and orientation to create smoothly varying pose, often called Cartesian interpolation.