In a serial-link manipulator arm each joint has to support all the links between itself and the end of the robot. We introduce the recursive Newton-Euler algorithm which allows us to compute the joint torques given the robot joint positions, velocities and accelerations and the link inertial parameters.
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We start by considering the effect of gravity acting on a robot arm, and how the torque exerted will disturb the position of the robot controller leading to a steady state error. Then we discuss a number of strategies to reduce this error.
If your knowledge of dynamics is a bit rusty then let’s quickly revise the basics of second-order systems and the Laplace operator. Not rusty? Then go straight to the next section.
An image contains a huge amount of pixel data, and a video stream is a massive flow of pixel data. Typically a robot has only a few inputs, the position or velocity of its joints. How do we go from all that camera data to the small amount of data the robot really needs?
For a redundant robot the inverse kinematics can be easily solved using a numerical approach.