A number of strategies exist to reduce the effect of these coupling torques between the joints, from introducing a gearbox between the motor and the joint, to advanced feedforward strategies.
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We will introduce resolved-rate motion control which is a classical Jacobian-based scheme for moving the end-effector at a specified velocity without having to compute inverse kinematics.
We will use Simulink to create a dynamic model of a single robot joint and simulate its operation.
We describe inertia of the robot as a matrix which represents how inertia of a joint depends on the position of all the joints, and how the torque on one joint depends on the acceleration of other joints.
We can factorise the joint torque expression into an elegant matrix equation with terms that describe the effects of inertia, Coriolis and centripetal and gravity effects.
We recap the important points from this masterclass.
In a serial-link manipulator arm each joint has to support all the links between itself and the end of the robot. We introduce the recursive Newton-Euler algorithm which allows us to compute the joint torques given the robot joint positions, velocities and accelerations and the link inertial parameters.
We will learn about the forces that are exerted on a robot’s joint by gravity acting on links, friction, and the coupling forces where the motion of one joint imparts a force on other joints.
Actuators have finite capability, that is they have a maximum torque, velocity and power rating.
If your knowledge of dynamics is a bit rusty then let’s quickly revise the basics of second-order systems and the Laplace operator. Not rusty? Then go straight to the next section.