#### Inverting the Jacobian Matrix

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By inverting the Jacobian matrix we can find the joint velocities required to achieve a particular end-effector velocity, so long as the Jacobian is not singular.

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By inverting the Jacobian matrix we can find the joint velocities required to achieve a particular end-effector velocity, so long as the Jacobian is not singular.

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Let’s look at numerical approaches to inverse kinematics for a couple of different robots and learn some of the important considerations. For RTB10.x please note that the mask value must be explicitly preceded by the ‘mask’ keyword. For example: >> q = p2.ikine(T, [-1 -1], ‘mask’, [1 1 0 0 0 0])

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A robot manipulator may have any number of joints. We look at how the shape of the Jacobian matrix changes depending on the number of joints of the robot.

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The pinhole camera simplifies the geometry but in practice it results in very dark images. Cameras, as well as our eyes, use a lens to form a brighter image but there are consequences.

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MATLAB normally deals with matrices of floating point numbers. An image is typically represented by an array of small integer values, pixel value or greyscale values, which have a limited dynamic range and special rules for arithmetic.

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Color is a very important concept for people. We have lots of words to describe colors and we even associate them with emotions.

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In order to determine the size and distance of objects in the scene our brain uses a number of highly evolved tricks. Let’s look at some of these.

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We can derive a linear relationship between the coordinates of points on an arbitrary plane in the scene and the coordinate of that point in the image. This is the planar homography and it has a number of everyday uses which might surprise you.

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Imagine trying to find a face in a crowd. If we know what the face looks like we could search for it at every possible location — this is the essence of template matching. To make it work we need to describe how similar each area we are checking is to the reference face image […]

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Vision is a ubiquitous sense and is found in almost all animals, but the number and type of eye is very diverse. We will look at examples such as compound eyes of insects, spiders, and sea creatures such as scallops and squids.