A robot joint controller is a type of feedback control system which is an old and well understood technique. We will learn how to assemble the various mechatronic components such as motors, gearboxes, sensors, electronics and embedded computing in a feedback configuration to implement a robot joint controller.
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As we did for the simple planar robots we can invert the Jacobian and perform resolved-rate motion control.
Another non-linear operation on the pixels in the box around the input pixel is to test whether they match a reference shape. This is a very powerful and useful approach to cleaning up noisy binary images known as mathematical morphology and objects in the image are treated according to their compatibility with a structuring element. […]
Images contain many pixels and the normal way to process them is with nested for loops that index each pixel in turn. This is slow and somewhat cumbersome to write. MATLAB has a facility called vectorization that allows us to perform complex matrix operations without any loops.
An image is a two dimensional projection of a three dimensional world. The big problem with this projection is that big distant objects appear the same size as small close objects. For people, and robots, it’s important to distinguish these different situations. Let’s look at how humans and robots can determine the scale of objects […]
Mathematical morphology comprises operations such as erosion, dilation, opening and closing. Let’s look at how we can use different shaped structuring elements to solve complex problems.
Spatial operators are closely related to concepts from signal processing called correlation and convolution. They are similar but different and we discuss the important properties of convolution for Gaussian kernels.
We run into problems when we take all of the pixels in a box around an input pixel and that pixel is close to one of the edges of the image. Let’s look at some strategies to deal with edge pixels.
A number of strategies exist to reduce the effect of these coupling torques between the joints, from introducing a gearbox between the motor and the joint, to advanced feedforward strategies.
We previously learnt how to derive a Jacobian which relates the velocity of a point, defined relative to one coordinate frame, to the velocity relative to a different coordinate frame. Now we extend that to the 3D case.