For a real 6-link robot our previous approach to computing the Jacobian becomes unwieldy so we will instead compute a numerical approximation to the forward kinematic function.
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We resume our analysis of the 6-link robot Jacobian and focus on the rotational velocity part.
For real robots such as those with 6 joints that move in 3D space the inverse kinematics is quite complex, but for many of these robots the solutions have been helpfully derived by others and published. Let’s explore the inverse kinematics of the classical Puma 560 robot.
Time varying coordinate frames are required to describe how the end-effector of a robot should move to grab an object, or to describe objects that are moving in the world. We make an important distinction between a path and a trajectory.
A body moving in 3D space has a translational velocity and a rotational velocity. The combination is called spatial velocity and is described by a 6-element vector.
We will introduce resolved-rate motion control which is a classical Jacobian-based scheme for moving the end-effector at a specified velocity without having to compute inverse kinematics.
The linear algebra approach we’ve discussed is very well suited to MATLAB implementation. Let’s look at some toolbox functions that can simulate what cameras do. If you are using a more recent version of MVTB, ie. MVTB 4.x then please change>> cam.project(PW ‘Tcam’, transl(0.1, 0, 0)) to >> cam.project(PW ‘pose’, transl(0.1, 0, 0)).
The end-effector is not able to move equally fast in all directions, and that in fact depends on the pose of the robot. We will introduce the velocity ellipse to illustrate this.
Let’s look at numerical approaches to inverse kinematics for a couple of different robots and learn some of the important considerations. For RTB10.x please note that the mask value must be explicitly preceded by the ‘mask’ keyword. For example: >> q = p2.ikine(T, [-1 -1], ‘mask’, [1 1 0 0 0 0])
We learn a method for succinctly describing the structure of a serial-link manipulator in terms of its Denavit-Hartenberg parameters, a widely used notation in robotics.